we talk about suicide, affect of it,
hear about it yet, cannot fully understand
uniqueness of each cases, which
started from mild depression
Razi Ghaemmagham Farahani
we talk about suicide, affect of it,
hear about it yet, cannot fully understand
uniqueness of each cases, which
started from mild depression
Razi Ghaemmagham Farahani
Ken Willber in his book named: No Boundary wrote:
“Contrary to most professional opinion, this gnawing
dissatisfaction with life is not sign of “mental illness,”
nor an indication of poor social adjustment, nor a character disorder.”
Then what is causing dissatisfaction of life that troubles
individual in a degree that shakes and paralyses the core
of individual? What is the self’s core belief’s role in
Is it just self and its identity or just self and its
Above question only can be answered when we have clear
definition of the self and it surroundings which called
contact environment and related boundaries.
The self cannot be considering as functional one without
This means two elements involved in cycle of satisfaction
or dissatisfaction in life which are: first the existing
boundary imposed by the contact environment to the self
and second one is that self-made boundary.
Sum of environmental boundaries imposed to self are contains
sets of rules and regulations based on sociology-geography,
socioeconomic, sociopolitical, and sociology-imagination.
These rules are for governing the self within context of society.
Self-made boundaries are based: ego and superego and these
boundaries are based for protection of self and governing self
within self in two levels: internal and external self.
As result I am assuming that as If we don’t sense and feel
to need for any protection then we do not need to build or
have any boundary in regard to self and its contact environment.
The point is that none of these boundaries are real yet, are
the virtual one.
Then defining boundary of the self-will depends on the fine
line between self and its environment according into
circumstances or condition of the self within context
and contents of environment.
I cannot deny the existence of boundary between self
and contact environment yet, defining such boundary
according to the time and place has own challenges.
Since time also is man-made and illusive then boundary
will be questionable. Then again the self without any
boundary cannot be defined as such self.
That is how we define the self in two categories which are:
the physicality of the self and psychology of the self.
The physicality of the self (physiology), acknowledged
throughout the biology of the self and interesting point
is that psychology of the self also for some degree
determined by biology of the self too.
Therefore we would be unable to define clear boundary
between these two phenomena (Body and Mind).
In such theory we cannot even separate body and mind
from each other which is recently everyone using such terms.
Since contact boundary is a movement then as result I
could conclude that there is no boundary between body
and mind and existence of any boundary generated by
contact environment for the self or self-made boundary
can be consider as limitation or expansion for the self or
none existence according to self’s circumstances with
Gestalt Therapy, Art Therapy
Fear has two perspectives which are:
1- Learned fear which is adaptive in daily life
2- None adoptive fear
Learned fear is basically what we learned
from our childhood growth and related memory
based on consequences of our action, from
unknown and considered layer of protection.
In this case although it effected our biology
along with psychology yet, had own mark in our
Therefore we dealt with fear in an ordinary daily
life someway as routine, expected and so on.
Learned fear gave us a relevant view of our surroundings,
able to predict possible and relevant outcome, able to
visualize possible or relevant reaction.
The reaction to learned fear is not very personalized.
Interesting element in learned fear is that we are able
to go back and review it with less negative effect on us
(interpretation of event or events) because logic is not
We can distance and desensitize ourselves from learned fear.
Physical reaction in learned fear differs according to individual
like, shaking, feeling tired, changing colour, feeling hyper,
frozen or numbness.
None adoptive fear is something totally new, no memory in this
regard exists prior its happening and we have no knowledge and
understanding of it prior it’s happening either.
It is totally unexplored area, it is shocking, it is out of our
imagination and control and bottom line we never experienced it before.
None adoptive fear causes as result of a traumatic event or events.
This will affect our psychology along our biology at the same time.
It will affect the way of our experiencing the event or events in a
very unique and personalized way.
Reaction to none adoptive fear is also very unique, extreme,
and personalized one. Psychological affects in both cases
are the same yet, the degree and level of it not the same.
The constant thinking about events in PTSD is challenging
area because of trigger element or elements.
Psychological negative effects are includes:
Possible phobia, trigger or stimulus, avoidance, living in
constant fear, instability, emotional (social, logical),
isolation, Anger, guilt, shame, anxious, nerves, frozen,
nightmare, loss of cognition and fear considers as alarm.
In PTSD fear is so real and paralyzes individual in any
perspective of life.
Interpretation of event or events and its associations
generate fear, anxiety and instability.
Razi Ghaemmagham Farahani
We almost all the time make transition in
our daily life. Transition is different than
Some of us have great difficulty to making
changes based on the perception that changes
are hard, or takes lots of energy or it
seems later on become permanent such as,
On the other hand transition is a constant
directing and redirecting our thoughts,
ideas, life style based on our awareness in
regard to life experiences and matter of
fact I consider transition cycle as moving
contact boundaries in which leads us to
decision making in a rapid and constant way.
In moving contact boundary we extend or limit
our boundaries according to our satisfaction
or dissatisfaction of our needs, wants and desire.
In process of transition, conflicts needed
immediate attention not for resolving yet,
for being aware of it because movement of
contact boundary that making us to face new
situation in the moment. For extending or
limiting our contact boundaries according
to our life situation we need to understand
conflict and root of it in the first place.
This I call it having clear perception of
Perception is a key element in each transition
that we are making thought out our lives.
In each movement of contact boundary we are
automatically experiencing and experimenting
the move and result of it in the spot.
This is providing us a chance to understand
our limitation and existing possibilities.
Indeed in process of transition we directly
are becoming aware of self’s ability to make
a decision in regard to: reorganization,
destroy and re-built, avoid or engage, continue
or discontinue process of transition.
Razi Ghaemmagham Farahani
Contributors: Robert W. Resnick
Editors: Edward S. Neukrug
Book Title: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Counseling and Psychotherapy
Chapter Title: “Gestalt Therapy”
Pub. Date: 2015
Access Date: June 16, 2015
Publishing Company: SAGE Publications, Inc.
City: Thousand Oaks,
Gestalt therapy is an existentially based humanistic
therapy arising out of Fritz and Laura Perls’s discrimination
and integration of ideas from many traditions, philosophies,
narratives, disciplines, and theories beginning in Germany
in the 1920s. Born as a revision of Sigmund Freud’s theories,
it has evolved into a major contributor to mainstream
psychotherapy—from a psychoanalytical/biological/Aristotelian/
deterministic foundation to a humanistic/existential/experiential
psychotherapy wherein restoration and holism replace dissection
and fragmentation and phenomenology
(personal meaning making) replaces interpretation.
[p. 457 ↓] Gestalt is a German word that translates into
English as “a whole,” “a pattern,” “an organization,” or
“a configuration.” While the hallmark of Gestalt psychology is
finding shared ways by which people organize their perceptions
and phenomenology, the task of Gestalt therapy can be seen as
becoming aware of and understanding the idiosyncratic organizing
patterns of each individual.
Fritz Perls, M.D., codeveloper of Gestalt therapy with his wife,
Laura Posner Perls, Ph.D., was a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst.
In 1926, Perls became an assistant to Kurt Goldstein, M.D.,
at the Neuropsychiatric Institute in Frankfurt, Germany. Goldstein,
collaborating with the experimental Gestalt psychologist Adhémar Gelb,
worked with brain-injured World War I German soldiers.
Their organismic, holistic, and integrative approach to working with
and understanding these soldiers was in sharp contrast to the usual
approach of the times, which was attending to piecemeal body or brain parts.
Fritz took this holistic approach and integrated it into Gestalt therapy.
He was also heavily influenced by several of his own analysts, especially
Wilhelm Reich and Karen Horney.
At the same time, Laura Perls was a psychology doctoral student at
Frankfurt am Mein University, studying with luminaries such as
Adhémar Gelb, Max Werthheimer in Gestalt psychology
(including field theory), Martin Buber and Paul Tillich in philosophy, as well
as working in Goldstein’s laboratory. She also trained and became a psychoanalyst.
Later in New York City, Fritz Perls was heavily influenced by Paul Goodman (she
was his collaborator on his seminal 1951 book Gestalt Therapy), Erich Fromm, Clara
Thompson, and Harry Stack Sullivan.
Although Gestalt therapy today seems to be enjoying a renaissance in
the United States after some decades of losing popularity, it is burgeoning
in most of Europe, Australia, Mexico, and South America. In the United States,
much of what Gestalt therapy introduced to the world from the late 1930s
until today has been integrated into many contemporary psychotherapies—
for example, the importance and usefulness of the “real” relationship, not
just transference; the organismic/environmental field (ecology);
the importance of awareness; and the movement from interpretation to
Every serious approach to psychotherapy requires a worldview of human
nature and behavior if it is to provide an integrated approach to psychotherapy.
Without such a worldview, “therapy” is reduced to a collage or hodgepodge
of haphazard techniques, beliefs, traditions, and procedures used without
consideration of the context that produced them—eclectic rather than integrative.
Gestalt therapy’s worldview sees human beings as self-regulating organisms of
the field who create meaning via their phenomenological organization (meaning
Self-regulation involves human beings going toward (aggressing) need
satisfaction in interaction with their world at the boundary, discriminating
what to take in and assimilating and what to reject in the service of survival
and to allow higher order needs to flourish. To rephrase, children are born
self-regulating in a contextual world and are usually able to survive by the
meaning they make of what they experience.
They are able to respond appropriately enough for them and the
environment to survive. Especially in complex societies, this is
not done without creating some character problems (personality issues)
for later living in the world.
Thus, Gestalt therapy’s process goal is to restore self-regulation within
the person’s environment and not to “fix” people in any particular way.
Given this basic assumption, some of the theoretical givens of Gestalt therapy
include its reliance on existentialism, field theory, phenomenology, and dialogue.
Gestalt therapy was heavily influenced by the existentialists (and Buddhists).
The existential themes that had the most meaning for Fritz Perls were
authenticity (being true to oneself despite external pressures); freedom
(the power to act or think as one chooses without restraint but within limits);
responsibility for our choices, the meanings we make, and the actions we take;
and anxiety that is created by being authentic in a world that has no meaning
except that which we create. Thus, existential anxiety is to a large part
normalized as part of being human.
Field theory was established by Gestalt perceptual psychology, particularly
the work of [p. 458 ↓] Kurt Levin (borrowing from quantum field theory).
It maintains that everything is related to everything else and is in constant
movement and flux.
An individual person is affected not just by his or her psyche but also by
genetics, hormones, biochemicals, family, ethnicity, religion, class, race,
nationality, politics, economics, history, geography, weather, and so on.
The person is not “in” the field but rather “of”
the field, interacting, effecting and being affected.
Phenomenology is the process by which human beings make meaning
of their sensorial experience— what they see, hear, touch, taste, and smell.
Meaning is the relationship between figure (what stands out) and ground
In other words, meaning is not in the figure and not in the ground;
rather it is in the relationship between the two. How individuals choose,
organize, and contribute to the construction of what becomes figural for
them and what background they bring to bear are critical. Thus,
figure organizes ground, and ground gives meaning to the figure.
Depending on the ground and the need that a person brings to the
figure of a wooden baseball bat, the meaning could be anticipation of a
fun game, a weapon, firewood to keep warm, a wedge to hold a cover open,
an instrument to break open a car window, a museum piece, a collector’s
item, a childhood dream, and so on.
Gestalt therapy borrows heavily from Buber’s concept of
I–It and I–Thou dialogic relating.
While much of life is I–It (strategic relating), primary relationships,
close friends, and, hopefully, therapeutic relationships have more
of an I–Thou quality—not managed and without attempts to
control the outcome.
The “freshest fish” (most “experience near”) for Gestalt therapy is
the relationship between the therapist and the client. While much of
what the client brings into therapy is his or her phenomenological
narrative of things happening in his or her outside life
(which is as it should be to begin), it is only in the relationship between
the client and the therapist that both people have access to the “same”
transactions. Thus, each person, client and therapist, has the opportunity
to share and engage in a real relationship—a sharing of their two
phenomenologies— wherein differences occur that may lead to awareness.
Frequently, the inevitable and inadvertent ruptures of connection and
the subsequent repair, with humility, authenticity, and responsibility,
can be some of the most important therapeutic interactions.
To put it another way, when the potential value of the relationship is in
the outcome, I– It (strategic relating) is appropriate to the situation;
when the potential value of the relationship is in the relating,
I–Thou (authentic relating) is appropriate to the situation.
Most relationships are in some kind of balance of both domains.
What makes Gestalt therapy so deliciously difficult to define is exactly
what makes it so exquisitely creative, vital, and procreative.
With the three major pillars as a foundation
(field theory, phenomenology, and dialogue), each Gestalt theorist or
therapist organizes the various other elements within the domain
of Gestalt therapy differently.
Gestalt therapy is based on the metatheory that there is no
single and fixed Gestalt therapy theory. Rather, each Gestalt therapy
theorist or therapist organizes, prioritizes, and integrates many
of the same ideas and concepts in different orders of priority
and integrations. Each theorist and therapist within Gestalt therapy
is doing at the microlevel what Fritz Perls, Laura Perls, and
Paul Goodman did in the larger (macro) field—choosing,
organizing, and integrating from all of what was in the larger
field at those times, including the history of the field.
Fritz Perls was emphatic that there was nothing new in Gestalt therapy,
that it was the organization (Gestalt) of all of these elements that was new.
The Chilean biologists and philosophers Humberto Maturana and
Francisco Varela remind us that we are always looking through a lens,
which is why we need multiple lenses to maintain perspective
and to keep “objective reality” in “parentheses.” Thus,
perspective and awareness are born out of difference.
The lens you use both determines and limits what you see.
If you only use a telescope, you will never see an ant, and
if you use only a microscope, you will never see an elephant.
Some of the major concepts that underlie Gestalt theory include
the following: the whole is different from (sometimes more than)
the sum of its parts, organismic/environmental field as an ecosystem,
self-regulation, character, awareness and insight, difference,
process, ecology, and body and voice.
The Whole Is Different From (Sometimes More Than) the Sum of
Its Parts All the parts of a car laid out on the ground give you many
metal, rubber, ceramic, liquid, and plastic bits and pieces.
However, organize them in a very particular relationship to one another
and you have a car in which you can now drive away— certainly different
from and, in this instance, more than the sum of its parts. Organize
them randomly and you may have an art project—or a pile of junk.
Organismic/Environmental Field as an Ecosystem
In contrast to classical psychoanalysis at the time, Fritz Perls
maintained that to understand any living organism, you must
understand it in its interaction with its environment, a living system
of the larger field. Classical psychoanalysis was interested
in the individual psyche and not particularly in the person’s
interaction with his or her environment.
This concept has been slowly assimilated into most current
The biological imperative for any living organism is survival.
Given this, Gestalt therapy assumes that human beings are
born self-regulating within their environment. Their interactions
with the field (their world), in the service of survival, accumulate
clusters of habits and ways of perceiving and acting—originally
healthy—that sometimes become fixed and habitual
(below awareness) and continue acontextually, sometimes
interrupting self-regulation in the present.
The relevant past is the past that interrupts healthy
functioning in the present, where it is accessible, palpable,
experiential, experimentable, and verifiable.
Character is made up of fixed clusters or patterns of perceptual
organization (meaning making) and behaviors from historical or
background influences, which are below awareness, recurring,
These are the matrices that make up character. Children make
the best creative adjustment they are capable of in the service of
survival. When a child is born into a crazy, explosive, alcoholic,
wartorn, erratic, or controlling family, she may learn to keep
her mouth shut, stay back, and scan until the world looks safe
again. This is healthy. When, however, this style of being in the
world becomes fixed, habitual, and goes below the awareness
threshold (procedural memory), this is the birth of character.
Character, then, is the freeze-framing of what was once a creative,
adaptive, and usually healthy perception and/or response and is
now acontextual, anachronistic, and obsolete.
Character is made up of actual experiences and introjects, which
are rules and “shoulds” that are crammed down the child’s
throat by parents, culture, church, government, and so on—
and swallowed whole by the child—before the child has the
ability to discriminate. Concurrently, contact boundary history,
traumas, attachment history, vicarious learning, media,
and culture all contribute to character formation.
Through the prism of Gestalt therapy’s character, transference
can be seen as “character in motion”—the transferring of ways
of perceiving others that have become fixed and below
awareness and are triggered in the present. Again, the
methodology of awareness through difference becomes
important for the client to learn how to discriminate between
the dialogic relationship in the room and the transferred
relationship. Discrimination can only happen experientially
if there are two relationships to compare and access difference.
For this, the therapist must “show up.” Again, difference
precedes and is required for awareness.
Awareness and Insight
Awareness is both the methodology and part of the goal of
Gestalt therapy—an integral requirement for the restoration of
self-regulation within the person’s environment.
One of the defining characteristics of awareness
(cognitive, affective, and sensorial) is being in contact with
what you are doing when you are actually doing it. Insight, as
compared with awareness, is something you believe you know
about yourself, and often based on noticing, interpreting or
speculating, and extrapolating. Insight is primarily a cognitive
analysis of a real or alleged pattern of what one does or why
one does what one does Difference.
How people deal with differences is at the root of most difficulties
in relationships —especially intimate relationships.
Difference is typically seen in a negative way, according to
most Western phenomenology. Having a bad reputation, difference is
seen as dangerous, a threat to connection or autonomy, critical, disloyal,
betrayal, and/ or leading to conflict and therefore frequently avoided.
Difference, which requires two individuals (needing a boundary
to separate and connect), is absolutely necessary for awareness.
There can be no awareness without difference. Here, physics and
psychology are very similar: Change (movement) is needed for
difference, difference is needed for awareness, and awareness is
needed for choice.
The distilled and fundamental task of therapy is awareness—
requiring the welcoming and engaging of difference rather
than trying to get rid of it. Trying to get rid of difference ultimately
leads to deferring (confluence or fusion, with accompanying loss of self),
withdrawal or isolation (with accompanying loss of other), or conflict
(trying to eradicate difference by making the other like me).
Conflict typically escalates to eventual explosion and then
Process refers to the repetitive patterns, sequences of perceptions,
and contacts and behaviors, unique to each individual, that organize
and structure one’s meaning making and behavior.
When below the awareness threshold, these repetitive patterns
or processes (character) organize what one sees, hears, touches,
smells, and tastes — contouring the meaning of these as well as
the behavior one responds with.
These characterological processes interrupt self-regulation in
the present, and the task of therapy is to interrupt those
interruptions by bringing them into awareness. Differences
in phenomenology between the client and the therapist frequently
serve as the catalyst to highlight these processes—the “fresh fish.”
Ecology is the branch of biology that studies the relationship
of living organisms to their environment, including other organisms.
The similarity of “character” and “pollutants” is both striking and
illuminating. Some ecologists define “pollutants” as “resources out
of place.” There is nothing inherently wrong or bad about the pollutant.
What makes it “bad” is that it is out of place or balance.
Even arsenic, a highly poisonous substance, has been found to be
useful in the treatment of cancer and syphilis. Similarly, character,
useful perceptually organizing the world and responding to it in one’s
initial context, can prevent self-regulation when invoked in another
context without awareness. For instance, an Inuit dressed in furs for
a Siberian winter would be wearing a “resource out of place”
in Karachi in July. It would probably kill him.
Body and Voice
From Wilhelm Reich to Fritz Perls and from Elsa Gindler to
Laura Perls, the body has always been an important dimension of
Gestalt therapy— especially breathing and voice.
Fritz Perls maintained that the voice was the single best
diagnostic cue of how a person is in the world
(e.g., tight, breathless, soft, sharp, relaxed, supported by
breathing or not).
Techniques are the least important part of Gestalt therapy.
However, some therapists still erroneously believe that Gestalt therapy
is a bag of techniques that define the therapy—a leftover from a
few loud, charismatic, misled, and self-appointed practitioners
from the 1960s who copied some of Fritz Perls’s experiments and codified
them into cliché techniques separated from their origins.
When the client and the therapist are stuck and one of them
does something different and useful information is generated,
this is creativity. When that same transaction with the world is
used again in a similar situation, perhaps with a different client,
this is technique. The creativity is born of the ground from
which Gestalt therapy emerges and not from fitting the client into the
therapist’s procrustean assortment of techniques.
What makes Gestalt therapy is the field, phenomenological,
and dialogic stance of the therapist in the service of awareness
and the restoration of the client’s [p. 461 ↓] self-regulation.
With this in mind, a number of ideas underlie how at least
some Gestalt therapists conduct therapy, including using
experiments, making contact with clients, dialogue, examining
figure formation and destruction, and being connected and
maintaining self. This section concludes with a discussion of
some typical techniques that have been used over the years.
The purpose of the use of experiments in Gestalt therapy is
fundamentally based on the experiment yielding new and
different experiential data, which allows awareness. It is
the difference that is crucial, whether arrived at by an experiment
or by any other means (dialogue, movement, breathing, psychoeducation, etc.).
Contact is the meeting between one person and another,
or a person and his or her environment. One cannot
“make” contact with another person. A person can optimize
the possibility of contact happening by sharing his or her primary
experience of the moment, regardless of the content.
If the other person is receptive and even willing to share his
or her primary experience at that moment, contact can happen
in the “inbetween.” Of course, such authenticity must be
modulated by the context, the degree of connection already
established with the other, and “common” sense.
Laura Perls maintained that “mental health” might be defined
as contact and withdrawal, both with support.
Figure Formation and Destruction
How people form and dissolve figures helps Gestalt therapy
track where on the cycle of experience the interruption to a
smooth flow occurs. This may in the future lead to a complete
process system of “diagnosis.”
Incomplete Gestalten (“unfinished business”)
are frequently considered to be interruptions to self-regulation.
Being Connected and Maintaining Self Although not
original to Gestalt therapy, the basic human dilemma
is seen as how to be connected to another and maintain a self.
This is not a problem searching for a resolution but rather a
living process in the endless dance of connection and separation
—one not unlike breathing.
Use of Techniques
Although therapists are warned to avoid using specific “techniques”
as a goal in and of itself, there have been a number of techniques
that have become known over the years to have originated with Gestalt therapy.
These approaches are sometimes used by Gestalt therapists,
and others, in an effort to help the client become more aware of self,
gain insight, and understand how he or she has become cut off from parts of self.
A few of the more prominent approaches are as follows:
(a) using “now” language,
(b) I–Thou communication,
(c) experiencing the present,
(d) making statements out of questions,
(e) the dialogue game,
(f) the empty chair technique,
(g) I take responsibility for that,
(h) playing the projection,
(i) exaggeration technique, and
(j) making the rounds.
Many of these well-known Gestalt techniques came from
Fritz Perls’s experiments at increasing awareness at different
times in his career. They neither define Gestalt therapy, nor are
they necessary to do Gestalt therapy.
The therapeutic process in Gestalt therapy emerges out of
the therapist meeting the client from a dialogic, horizontal, and supportive stance.
Therapy can be short-term or protracted, depending on
the needs and desires of the client in consultation with the therapist.
The goals of Gestalt therapy are awareness and choice at three levels—
(1) awareness of content,
(2) awareness of process, and
(3) awareness of awareness
(learning how to become aware—deutero learning)—so that therapy can become selfsustaining
and self-regulation can be restored and maintained.
See alsoHorney, Karen; Humanistic Psychoanalysis of Erich Fromm; Mindfulness
Techniques; Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy; Reich, Wilhelm; Sullivan, Harry
Cognitive restructuring is replacing negative
and unhelpful thoughts with the positive and
In this approach some necessary steps needed to take
for restructuring thoughts and also behavior in which
could call behaviour modification.
1: Having very detail information
2: Becoming aware of environmental factors
3: Identifying and recognizing emotions, reactions
4: Rating intensity of emotion (SUDS)
SUDS is, subjective units of distress scale
5: Identifying thoughts that is associated with
negative emotions, reactions, automated thought
Most often change of perception will happen after identifying
and recognizing associated thought and behaviour
6: Gathering evidence that supports thought and behaviour
7: looking into a existence or generated options
Razi Ghaemmagham Farahani
Gestalt Ottawa and Clinical Hypnosis
Ego-dystonic: “is a sign, symptom or
experience which the patient finds
uncomfortable or doesn’t want.”
Ego-syntonic: “is a sign, symptom,
or experience which the patient finds
acceptable and consistent with his personality.
” Nicholas G. Ward”
Like people who are aware of their OCD,
Like people with neurosis character and behaviour
Razi Ghaemmagham Farahani
Histrionic personality disorder is pattern of attention seeking
behaviour and extreme emotionality.
Individual with this disorder wants to be the center of attention,
in group or with people and feel uncomfortable when they are not.
They have difficulty when people aren’t focused exclusively on them.
Individual with this disorder may being perceived as shallow,
sexually seductive or provocative behaviour to draw attention
to oneself is another way of achieving such attention.
In this case individuals might have difficulty achieving
emotional intimacy in romantic or sexual relationships.
Individual will attempt seek control of partner through
emotional manipulation or would display dependency
on partner at another level.
This disorder would cause losing friends by constant
demand of attention, or provocative behaviour that
might perceived as threatening to friends.
Individual will often suffer from social anxiety,
depression when is not center of attention.
Individual with histrionic personality disorder might
desire novelty, inspiration, and excitement and on
the other hand individual become any usual routine.
Individuals is often intolerant, frustrated by situations when
cannot achieve immediate satisfaction of desired attention.
In terms of work individual with this disorder might initiate
project with extreme enthusiasm yet, such excitement might
die fairly quickly.
In relationship a long term one might become subject of negligence
for new relationship because of new excitement.
This personality disorder is a pattern continuation of inner self experience
and behabviour that is mostly rooted in the individual’s culture and adolescence
or early adulthood.
Working within CBT with such individual is not recommended
because is affected by interpersonal functioning or instinct
Treatment of individual with this disorder requires testing, seeing psychiatrist
and long term therapy sessions requires.
Razi Ghaemmagham Farahani
Clinical Hypnosis & Art